(This article was originally published at Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, and syndicated at StatsBlogs.)

*Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science*.

**Abstract:**This article explains a decision rule that uses Bayesian posterior distributions as the basis for accepting or rejecting null values of parameters. This decision rule focuses on the range of plausible values indicated by the highest density interval of the posterior distribution and the relation between this range and a region of practical equivalence (ROPE) around the null value. The article also discusses considerations for setting the limits of a ROPE and emphasizes that analogous considerations apply to setting the decision thresholds for p values and Bayes factors.

Figure 1 of the article |

From the introduction:

In everyday life and in science, people often gather data to estimate a value precisely enough to take action. We use sensory data to decide that a fruit is ripe enough to be tasty but not overripe—that the ripeness is “just right” (e.g., Kappel, Fisher-Fleming, & Hogue, 1995, 1996). Scientists measured the position of the planet Mercury (among other things) until the estimate of the parameter γ in competing theories of gravity was sufficiently close to 1.0 to accept general relativity for applied purposes (e.g., Will, 2014).The published article is available

These examples illustrate a method for decision making that I formalize in this article. This method, which is based on Bayesian estimation of parameters, uses two key ingredients. The first ingredient is a summary of certainty about the measurement. Because data are noisy, a larger set of data provides greater certainty about the estimated value of measurement. Certainty is expressed by a confidence interval in frequentist statistics and by a highest density interval (HDI) in Bayesian statistics. The HDI summarizes the range of most credible values of a measurement. The second key ingredient in the decision method is a range of parameter values that is good enough for practical purposes. This range is called the region of practical equivalence (ROPE). The decision rule, which I refer to as the HDI+ROPE decision rule, is intuitively straightforward: If the entire HDI—that is, all the most credible values—falls within the ROPE, then accept the target value for practical purposes. If the entire HDI falls outside the ROPE, then reject the target value. Otherwise, withhold a decision.

In this article, I explain the HDI+ROPE decision rule and provide examples. I then discuss considerations for setting the limits of a ROPE and explain that similar considerations apply to setting the decision thresholds for p values and Bayes factors.

**here**(http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2515245918771304) and a pre-print version, with some differences in details, is available

**here**(https://osf.io/s5vdy).

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