Posts Tagged ‘ Data Analysis ’

Skew this

September 22, 2014
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Skew this

The skewness of a distribution indicates whether a distribution is symmetric or not. A distribution that is symmetric about its mean has zero skewness. In contrast, if the right tail of a unimodal distribution has more mass than the left tail, then the distribution is said to be "right skewed" […]

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The frequency of letters in an English corpus

September 19, 2014
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The frequency of letters in an English corpus

It's time for another blog post about ciphers. As I indicated in my previous blog post about substitution ciphers, the classical substitution cipher is no longer used to encrypt ultra-secret messages because the enciphered text is prone to a type of statistical attack known as frequency analysis. At the root […]

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An exploratory technique for visualizing the distributions of 100 variables

September 10, 2014
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An exploratory technique for visualizing the distributions of 100 variables

In a previous blog post I showed how to order a set of variables by a statistic. After reshaping data, you can create a graph that contains box plots for many variables. Ordering the variables by some statistic (mean, median, variance,...) helps to differentiate and distinguish the variables. You can […]

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How to create a hexagonal bin plot in SAS

September 2, 2014
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How to create a hexagonal bin plot in SAS

While I was working on my recent blog post about two-dimensional binning, a colleague asked whether I would be discussing "the new hexagonal binning method that was added to the SURVEYREG procedure in SAS/STAT 13.2." I was intrigued: I was not aware that hexagonal binning had been added to a […]

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Counting observations in two-dimensional bins

August 27, 2014
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Counting observations in two-dimensional bins

Last Monday I discussed how to choose the bin width and location for a histogram in SAS. The height of each histogram bar shows the number of observations in each bin. Although my recent article didn't mention it, you can also use the IML procedure to count the number of […]

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Choosing bins for histograms in SAS

August 25, 2014
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Choosing bins for histograms in SAS

When you create a histogram with statistical software, the software uses the data (including the sample size) to automatically choose the width and location of the histogram bins. The resulting histogram is an attempt to balance statistical considerations, such as estimating the underlying density, and "human considerations," such as choosing […]

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Analyzing activity-tracker data: How many steps per day do YOU take?

August 22, 2014
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Analyzing activity-tracker data: How many steps per day do YOU take?

My wife got one of those electronic activity trackers a few months ago and has been diligently walking every day since then. At the end of the day she sometimes reads off how many steps she walked, as measured by her activity tracker. I am always impressed at how many […]

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Creating heat maps in SAS/IML

August 20, 2014
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Creating heat maps in SAS/IML

In a previous blog post, I showed how to use the graph template language (GTL) in SAS to create heat maps with a continuous color ramp. SAS/IML 13.1 includes the HEATMAPCONT subroutine, which makes it easy to create heat maps with continuous color ramps from SAS/IML matrices. Typical usage includes […]

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Computing prediction ellipses from a covariance matrix

July 23, 2014
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Computing prediction ellipses from a covariance matrix

In a previous blog post, I showed how to overlay a prediction ellipse on a scatter plot in SAS by using the ELLIPSE statement in PROC SGPLOT. The ELLIPSE statement draws the ellipse by using a standard technique that assumes the sample is bivariate normal. Today's article describes the technique […]

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Add a prediction ellipse to a scatter plot in SAS

July 21, 2014
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Add a prediction ellipse to a scatter plot in SAS

It is common in statistical graphics to overlay a prediction ellipse on a scatter plot. This article describes two easy ways to overlay prediction ellipses on a scatter plot by using SAS software. It also describes how to overlay multiple prediction ellipses for subpopulations. What is a prediction ellipse? A […]

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