Amazon’s Mechanical Turk has rejuvenated the social sciences, dramatically reducing the cost and inconvenience of collecting original data. Recently, however, researchers have raised concerns about the presence of “non-respondents” (bots) or non-serious respondents on the platform. Spurred by these concerns, we fielded an original survey on MTurk to measure response quality. While we find no evidence of a “bot epidemic,” we do find that a significant portion of survey respondents engaged in suspicious be- havior. About 20% of respondents either circumvented location requirements or took the survey multiple times. In addition, at least 5-7% of participants likely engaged in “trolling” or satisficing. Altogether, we find about a quarter of data collected on MTurk is potentially untrustworthy. Expectedly, we find response quality impacts experimental treatments. On average, low quality responses attenuate treatment effects by approximately 9%. We conclude by providing recommendations for collecting data on MTurk.
And here are the promised recommendations:
• Use geolocation filters on survey platforms like Qualtrics to enforce any geographic restrictions.
• Make use of tools on survey platforms to retrieve IP addresses. Run each IP through Know Your IP to identify blacklisted IPs and multiple responses originating from the same IP.
• Include questions to detecting trolling and satisficing but do not copy and paste from a standard canon as that makes “gaming the survey” easier.
• Increase the time between Human intelligence task (HIT) completion and auto-approval so that you can assess your data for untrustworthy responses before approving or rejecting the HIT.
• Rather than withhold payments, a better policy may be to incentivize workers by giving them a bonus when their responses pass quality filters.
• Be mindful of compensation rates. While unusually stingy wages will lead to slow data collection times and potentially less effort by Workers, unusually high wages may give rise to adverse selection—especially because HITs are shared on Turkopticon, etc. soon after posting. . . Social scientists who conduct research on MTurk should stay apprised of the current “fair wage” on MTurk and adhere accordingly.
• Use Worker qualifications on MTurk and filter to include only Workers who have a high percentage of approved HITs into your sample.
They also say they do not think that the problem is limited to MTurk.
I haven’t tried to evaluate all these claims myself, but I thought I’d share it all with those of you who are using this tool in your research. (Or maybe some of you are MTurk bots; who knows what will be the effect of posting this material here.)
P.S. Sood adds:
From my end, “random” error is mostly a non-issue in this context. People don’t use M-Turk to produce generalizable estimates—hardly anyone post-stratifies, for instance. Most people use it to say they did something. I suppose it is a good way to ‘fail fast.’ (The downside is that most failures probably don’t see the light of day.) And if we people wanted to buy stat. sig., bulking up on n is easily and cheaply done — it is the raison d’etre of MTurk in some ways.
So what is the point of the article? Twofold, perhaps. First is that it is good to parcel out measurement error where we can. And the second point is about how do we build a system where the long-term prognosis is not simply noise. And what struck out for me from the data was just the sheer scale of plausibly cheeky behavior. I did not anticipate that.