The golden ratio is the larger root of the equation

φ² – φ – 1 = 0.

By analogy, **golden ratio primes** are prime numbers of the form

*p* = φ² – φ – 1

where φ is an integer. When φ is a large power of 2, these prime numbers are useful in cryptography because their special form makes modular multiplication more efficient. (See the previous post on Ed448.) We could look for such primes with the following Python code.

from sympy import isprime for n in range(1000): phi = 2**n q = phi**2 - phi - 1 if isprime(q): print(n)

This prints 19 results, including *n* = 224, corresponding to the golden ratio prime in the previous post. This is the only output where *n* is a multiple of 32, which was useful in the design of Ed448.

Of course you could look for golden ratio primes where φ is not a power of 2. It’s just that powers of 2 are the application where I first encountered them.

A prime number *p* is a golden ratio prime if there exists an integer φ such that

*p* = φ² – φ – 1

which, by the quadratic theorem, is equivalent to requiring that *m* = 4*p* + 5 is a square. In that case

φ = (1 + √*m*)/2.

Here’s some code for seeing which primes less than 1000 are golden ratio primes.

from sympy import primerange def issquare(m): return int(m**0.5)**2 == m for p in primerange(2, 1000): m = 4*p + 5 if issquare(m): phi = (int(m**0.5) + 1) // 2 assert(p == phi**2 - phi - 1) print(p)

There are 168 primes less than 1000, and 20 of them are golden ratio primes. The smallest is *p* = 5, corresponding to φ = 3.

By the way, there are faster ways to determine whether an integer is a square. See this post for algorithms.