(This article was originally published at The DO Loop, and syndicated at StatsBlogs.)

Happy holidays to all my readers! My greeting-card to you is an image of a self-similar Christmas tree. The image (click to enlarge) was created in SAS by using two features that I blog about regularly: matrix computations and ODS statistical graphics.

### Self-similarity in Kronecker products

I have previously shown that the repeated Kronecker product of a binary matrix leads to self-similar structures.

Specifically, if **M** is a binary matrix then the Kronecker product **M**@**M** is a block matrix in which each 1 in the original matrix is replaced with a copy of **M** and each 0 is replaced by a zero block. (Here '@' is the Kronecker product (or direct product) operator, which is implemented in SAS/IML software.) If you repeat this process three or more times and create a heat map of the product matrix, the self-similar structure is apparent.

For example, the following 5 x 7 binary matrix has a 1 in positions that approximate the shape of a Christmas tree. The direct product **M**@**M**@**M** is a matrix that has 5^{3} = 125 rows and 7^{3} = 343 columns. If you use the HEATMAPDISC subroutine in SAS/IML to create a heat map of the direct product, you obtain the following image in which a green cell represents a 1:

proc iml; M = {0 0 0 1 0 0 0, 0 0 1 1 1 0 0, 0 1 1 1 1 1 0, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1, 0 0 0 1 0 0 0}; Tree = M @ M @ M; /* M is 5 x 7, so Tree is 125 x 343 */ ods graphics / width=300px height=450px ANTIALIASMAX=50000; call heatmapdisc(Tree) title="Happy Holidays to All my Readers!" colorramp={White Green} displayoutlines=0 ShowLegend=0; |

That's not a bad result for three SAS/IML statements! You can see that the "tree" has a self-similar structure: the large tree is composed of 17 smaller trees, each of which is composed of 17 mini trees.

### Adding a star

My readers are worth extra effort, so I want to put a star on the top of the tree. One way to do this is to use a scatter plot and plot a special observation by using a star symbol. To plot the "tree" by using a scatter plot, it is necessary to "unpack" the 125 x 343 matrix into a list of (*x, y*) values (this is a wide-to-long conversion of the matrix). You can use the NDX2SUB function to extract the row and column of each 1 in the matrix, as follows:

/* extract (row, column) pairs for matrix elements that are '1' */ idx = loc(Tree = 1); /* indices for the 1s */ s = ndx2sub(dimension(Tree), idx); /* convert indices to subscripts */ create Tree from s[c={"RNames" "CNames"}]; append from s; close; call symputx("XPos", range(s[,2])/2); /* midrange = horiz position of star */ quit; |

The previous statements create a SAS data set called TREE that contains the (x, y) positions of the 1s in the direct product matrix. The statements also saved the midrange value to a macro variable. The following SAS procedures create the location of the star, concatenate the two data sets, and create a scatter plot of the result, which is shown at the top of this article.

data star; x = &XPos; y = 0; run; data Tree2; set Tree star; run; ods graphics / width=600px height=800px ANTIALIASMAX=50000; title "Happy Holidays"; proc sgplot data=Tree2 noborder noautolegend; scatter x=CNames y=RNames / markerattrs=(color=ForestGreen symbol=SquareFilled size=3); scatter x=x y=y / markerattrs=(symbol=StarFilled size=20) /* yellow star */ filledoutlinedmarkers markerfillattrs=(color=yellow); yaxis reverse display=none; xaxis display=none; run; |

### Previous SAS-created Christmas cards

All year long I blog about how to use SAS for serious pursuits like statistical modeling, data analysis, optimization, and simulation. Consequently, I enjoy my occasional forays into a fun and frivolous topic such as how to create a greeting card with SAS. If you like seeing geeky SAS-generated images, here is a list of my efforts from previous years:

**2016:**An animation of falling snow**2015:**Lo, how a polar rose e'er blooming**2014:**A Christmas tree from Pascal's triangle**2013:**A Christmas tree matrix and heat map**2012:**A fractal Christmas tree**2011:**An ASCII Christmas tree

Wherever you are and whatever holiday you celebrate, may you enjoy peace and happiness this season and in the New Year.

The post A self-similar Christmas tree appeared first on The DO Loop.

**Please comment on the article here:** **The DO Loop**